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Abstract


The role of 19th century Ottoman intellectuals in Turkish modernization
Modernization started to be effective on the agenda of the Ottoman State after the Renaissance and Reform periods. The state's encounter with military and economic failures led him to seek solutions. Initially, the comeback was considered as a solution. However, the political developments, the foreign relations established by the sefirs with the countries, and the ideas in Europe have made them feel more at home, and the proposals for solutions have been different. The bureaucracy class played an active role in shaping modernization ideas due to the importance of diplomacy and its greater contact with Europe. Later, the issue of modernization in the Ottoman State through bureaucrats became the main area of Ottoman intellectuals. The debates reached a peak in the 19th century, especially with the activities of the New Ottoman Society. From this point on, the problem of innovation was included not only in the intellectuals but also in the interests of the public and students. In the ongoing discussions, the 19th century intellectuals had a shaping quality. Revealing their attitudes, issues and solution approaches from coming after him and engaged intellectually with the issues of modernization, dignitaries, students, soldiers and affected the Republic of Turkey.

Keywords
Modernization, 19th century, the Ottoman State, the New Ottoman Society, Ottoman intellectuals


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